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Unit 4 Education

Content:

1.Learn to Communicate

Purpose of Education

Education System in China

A Debate

Video Time

 

2.Text Learning

New Words & Expressions

Reading Questions

Text Structure

Text Understanding

3.Exercises

Reading Comprehension

Vocabulary

 

Purpose of Education

In China, compulsory education(义务教育), adult education and professional education have been established and carried out well. But what is education for? The following are some suggested answers. Please read them through, putting a “√” after each one you agree with and a “ⅹ” after each one you disagree with. Work in groups to exchange your answers.

Purpose of Education

/

1)  It is to provide students with the true sense of life, a value system and a set of ideas.

 

2)  It is to guarantee each student a large income and high social position.

 

3)  It is to equip students with the power of knowledge and the skills for specific jobs.

 

4)  It is to prepare students to glorify(使荣耀)themselves as well as their families.

 

5)  It can help students learn to be responsible inpiduals in the world and respect others with an open heart.

 

6)  It can help students learn to question the knowledge and the world rather than simply follow instructions without a second thought.

 

 

Education System in China

The following table shows the education system in China. Work in groups to fill in the blanks and then discuss with your group members the question: In each stage, what courses do students usually learn? Prepare a short report and choose a person to present it to the whole class.

Sample:

    In primary school, students are taught basic knowledge of language and science. The courses include Chinese, Mathematics, Science, Foreign Language, Social Morality, Music, P. E. and Fine Arts.

    In junior high school, students mainly learn Chinese, Mathematics, Foreign Language, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Social Morality, History, Geography, IT, and Music.

In senior high school, the primary courses include Chinese, Mathematics, Foreign Language, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Geography, History, Politics and IT.

In professional school and college, students are pided into different majors. Besides the basic courses like Mathematics and Foreign Languages, they mainly acquire knowledge and skills related to their future job and career.

 

Work in two groups in the class and have a debate on “A university education is a decisive factor for one’s success”. One group lists as many arguments for it as possible, while the other group against it.

A Debate

For

Against

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Topic: A university education is a decisive factor for one’s success

Sample:                                 

For

University education provides a person with necessary knowledge and skills for future job.

University education can help broaden one’s horizons and shape one’s personality.

University education helps a person become a civilized being.

The university is like a small society in which students acquire communicative skills.

The more education one has, the more likely one will succeed in his career.

Against

University education does not guarantee the acquisition of skills and knowledge necessary for one’s success. People can learn skills and knowledge through various ways.

Many people who haven’t got a university education can also succeed in their fields, such as Bill Gates.

Many university courses are not related to students’ daily life.

People can learn communicative skills by communicating with others in society.

University education is important to some extent, but not a prerequisite for success.

 

Video Time

Watch, Listen and Repeat.

Text Learning

New Words & Expressions

Word Study

intelligent a. showing thinking ability 聪明的,有才智的,明智的

Examples:

    明智的决定

    an intelligent decision

    你能说海豚比其它动物聪明得多吗?

    Can you say that dolphins are much more intelligent than other animals?

intelligence n. 智力,智慧

Examples:

    an intelligence test

    智力测验

    发挥你的聪明才智,你一定能取得成就。

    Use your intelligence, and you're sure to achieve something.

    intelligence quotient(略作I.Q.

    智商

potential n. (the degree of ) possibility for developing or being developed潜能,潜力

Examples:

    应当鼓励所有的儿童充分发挥他们的潜力。

    All children should be encouraged to realize their full potential.

    那小男孩有演戏的潜力,但需要训练。

    The boy has acting potential, but he needs training.

potential a. not at present active or developed, but able to become so潜在的,可能的

Example:

    路上的那个坑是个潜在的危险。

The hole in the road is a potential danger.

 

contribute v.  help to bring about有助于  give (ideas, suggestions, etc.) 贡献  join with others in giving (money, help, etc. to a common cause)捐献,捐助

contribute to…贡献,促成,有助于

contribute sth. to…把……贡献/捐赠给……

Examples:

   锻炼能促成更强健的体魄

   Exercise contributes to better health.

   宋朝有三大发明对世界文明做出了贡献。

   Song dynasty contributed three inventions to world civilization.

   他们为穷人捐赠食品和衣服。

   They contribute food and clothing for the poor.

contribution n. 贡献(物);捐献(物)

contributor n. 贡献者;捐助者

Examples:

    老一辈人为发展经济作出了重要贡献。

    Older people are important contributors to the economy.

    他对项目的成功作出了积极的贡献。

    He made a very positive contribution to the success of the project.

make a contribution to 捐赠; 作出贡献

 

positively ad. 积极地;肯定地

Examples:

    积极思维是对付压力的一种方法。

    Thinking positively is one way of dealing with stress.

    那肯定是我看过的最好的电影。

    It’s positively the best movie I’ve ever seen.

Antonym: negatively

positive a.  确实的;积极的;正极的

Examples:

    a positive attitude

    乐观的态度

    她力求对新工作更有信心。

    She tried to be more positive about her new job.

Antonym: negative

 

perceive vt. to understand sth. 认识到;理解  to notice sth.觉察,感知

Examples:

    她将很快了解我所说的话是真实的。

    She will soon perceive that what I said is true.

    他察觉到那两种颜色的细微差异。

    He perceived the fine difference between the two colors.

perceiveas 把……看作……

Example:

    这一发现被视为一项重大突破。

This discovery was perceived as a great breakthrough.

perception n. 理解,领悟;洞察力

 

marvelous a. wonderful; surprisingly good 奇迹般的,惊人的,了不起的

Examples:

    一项惊人的发现

    a marvelous discovery

    这些狗有非常敏锐的嗅觉。

    These dogs have a marvelous sense of smell.

 

technological a. 技术(学)的;工艺(学)的

Examples:

    a technological process

    工艺过程

    技术突破(革命)

    a technological breakthrough (revolution)

technology n. 工业技术;工艺学

technique n. 技巧,方法

technical a. 技术(上)的

 

creativity n. 创造性,创造力

Example:

    创造力比专门技术更为重要。

    Creativity is more important than technical skills.

create v. to make sth. happen or exist 创造,创作

Example:

    政府计划为年轻人创造更多的就业机会。

    The government plans to create more jobs for young people.

creative a. 创造(性)的,有创造力的

Examples:

    她极富创造力,既赋诗又作画。

    She’s very creative—she writes poetry and paints.

    creative thinking

    创造性思维

 

communication n. 交流, 传达, 通讯; (pl.) 通讯系统;交通工具

Examples:

    广播和电视是重要的通讯手段。

Radio and television are important means of communication.

communications satellite

    通讯卫星

 

communicate v. to make known to others 交流, 传达  to pass a disease from one person to another 传播

Examples:

    他不能清楚地向听众表达他的思想。

    He couldn’t communicate his ideas clearly to the audience.

    你的感冒很容易传染给别人。

    You can easily communicate your cold to other people.

 

characteristic a. typical and special 特殊的,独特的

Example:

    这种天气是热带地区所特有的。

    This kind of weather is characteristic of the tropics.

n. a special quality of sb. or sth. 特性,特征

Example:

    需要交流是人类社会最重要的一个特征。

    The need to communicate is a key characteristic of human society.

是……特有的,典型的

 

character n.

    特性;特征

    the character of the desert areas of North Africa

    北非沙漠地区之特质

    性格;品质

    He is a man of noble character.

    他是个品格高尚的人。

    知名人士;人物;角色

    The characters in his books are interesting. 

    他书中的人物很有意思。

   (书写或印刷)符号;(汉)字符

    Chinese characters

    汉字

 

substitute v. to put in the place of another 代替,接替

Examples:

    我们决不能以个人的利益来取代群众的利益。

    We should never substitute our personal interests for those of the masses.

substitute A for B A代替B

史密斯先生代替生病住院的英语老师。

 Mr. Smith substituted for the teacher of English who was in hospital.

cf. replace B with A A代替B

substitute for 代替……,   取代……

 

substitute n. a person or thing that takes the place of another代替者,代用品

Example:

    蜂蜜可用来作为糖的代用品。

    Honey can be used as a substitute for sugar.

 

discipline n. an area of knowledge学科;科目  order kept among school pupils, soldiers, etc. 纪律,风纪

Examples:

    compulsory discipline

    必修学科

    在敌人的炮火下,那些士兵显示了良好的纪律。

    The soldiers showed perfect discipline under the fire of the enemy.

discipline vt. train and control the mind and character of 训练,惩戒

Examples:

    大学生必须学会自律。

    Students must learn to discipline themselves.

    节食是自我控制的问题。

    Dieting is a matter of disciplining yourself.

 

seek v. try to find sth.寻找  try to obtain, ask or do sth. 探索;追求

Examples:

    他们到城里找工作。

    They moved to the city to seek jobs.

    他们为寻求和平而工作多年。

    They have been working for years to seek peace.

变化:sought, sought, seeking

 

feature n. characteristic 特征,特色  (pl.) the face as a whole 面貌,相貌

Examples:

    常下大雨是赤道附近天气的一个特征。

    Heavy rains are a feature of weather near the equator.

    a man of handsome features

    面容英俊的男子

Synonym: characteristic

 

exclusively ad. only 限于……,专门地,仅仅

Examples:

    这个房间仅供妇女使用。

    This room is for women exclusively.

    他专门被雇佣来修理汽车。

    He is exclusively employed on repairing cars.

exclude vt. 把……排除在外,排斥(可能性)

Examples:

    exclude foreigners from joining the club

    拒绝外国人参加该俱乐部

    这些词语在文明谈话中是不能使用的。

    Such words are excluded from polite conversation.

exclude …from (doing) sth.

阻止,拒绝

exclusive a. 专用的,独占的,排外的

Example:

    This dining room is for the important guests’ exclusive use.

    这间餐室是供贵宾专用的。

exclusive of 不包括

Example:

    The hotel charges $150 a day, exclusive of meals.

    这旅馆一天收费150美元,不包括膳食。

 

current a. happening now; of the present time 现今的,当前的  in common or general use; generally accepted 通用的;流行的

Examples:

    current events

    时事

    In each language there are many words that are no longer

    current.

    每一种语言中都有一些现在已不通用的词。

current n. steam of water, air, gas, esp. one flowing through slower moving or still water, etc. 流;水流;气流 

flow of electricity through sth. or along a wire or cable电流

Examples:

    他逆着急流游向岸边。

    He swam to the shore against a strong current.

    turn on (off) the current

    接通(关掉)电流

go/swim with the current 随波逐流

currently ad. 当前;时下

 

qualification n. 资格;能力

Examples:

     a qualification test

     资格考试

    你有教英语的资格吗?

    Do you have qualifications for teaching English?

    Do you have qualifications to teach English?

 

qualify vt.(使)具有资格;(使)胜任(for)

Examples:

    他去年获得了医生的资格。

    He was qualified as a doctor last year.

    本培训课程将使你能胜任更好的工作。

    This training course will qualify you for a better job.

 

pursue vt. work at; continue 追求;从事  follow in order to catch 追赶,追踪

Examples:

    pursue pleasure (fame)

    追求享乐(名声)

    她希望从事医学工作。

    She wishes to pursue a medical career.

    她离开剧场,被记者穷追不舍。

    She left the theatre, hotly pursued by the press.

pursuit n. 追求追赶消遣

Examples:

    父亲的假日消遣之一就是钓鱼。

    One of my father’s holiday pursuits is fishing.

    She traveled the world in pursuit of her dreams.

    她走遍天下,追寻她的梦想。

in pursuit (of) 追踪,追求

in hot pursuit 穷追

 

to a ...degree 在……程度上

Examples:

    对他的故事我们多多少少可相信一点。

    We can believe his story to a certain degree.

    你对艺术的兴趣达到何种程度?

    To what degree are you interested in art?

 

in many cases: in many conditions, under many circumstances 在很多情况下

Example:

    在很多情况下单靠规定还不行。

    In many cases rules alone will not work.

in some cases 在某些情况下

in any case 无论如何, 总之

in no case 决不

in case of 万一……, 如果发生……

Example:

    万一下雨,他们就不能去了。

   In case of rain they can’t go.

 

in a sense: to some extent, to some degree 在某种程度上,从某种意义上来说

Examples:

    我认为从某种意义上讲他是对的。

    I think he may be right in a sense.

    从某种意义上来说,保护野生动物就是保护我们人类自己。

    In a sense protecting the wild animals means protecting ourselves.

in no sense 决不是, 决非

 

regardless of: in spite of 不管

Examples:

    尽管目前遇到了困难,但他们仍然继续他们的研究。

    Regardless of the present difficulties, they continued with their research.

    他怎么想就怎么说,不考虑别人的情绪。

    He says what he thinks, regardless of other people's feelings.

Synonym: without regard to/for 不顾, 不考虑

 

see...as: 把……看作,把……当作

Example:

    她把这次学习看成是一次提高的机会,决心尽自己最大的努力。

    She sees this study as an opportunity for advancement and is determined to try her best.

Synonyms: regard … as, think of … as, look on … as

                   perceive … as, consider … as

 

Reading Questions

Is a formal education necessary for success? Why?

What’s a university education for?

 

Text Structure

Part One (Para.1~3)

        People can become successful no matter whether they have formal education or not.

Part Two (Para.4)

      There’s no direct correlation between success and educational attainment.

Part Three (Para.5)

        There are many things that we can expect from a university education.

 

Text Understanding

1     All people are intelligent to a greater or lesser degree and have the  potential to contribute positively to society. Unfortunately, the potential of many people is never realized.

What Is a University Education for?

2    We have all heard stories of the self-made person who, with very little formal education, has made a great success of life. In many cases the simple measure of success is personal wealth, but whatever the measure they are perceived as being successful in their lifetime. Winston Churchill was never considered strong academically, yet he became a great wartime leader, a prime minister, a respected writer and a good painter. Brendan Behan was a marvelous playwright and author. Leonardo da Vinci, who was a great painter and technological inventor, was also a pioneer in human anatomy, not because he was interested in medical education, but because he felt that to draw the human form well he needed to know what was under the skin.

Text Understanding

3    Many others built a lifetime of creativity based on formal training and education. Vincent Van Gogh tried to achieve communication and insight through painting. In a sense one of his technological contributions was the development of his own, so characteristic, “yellow”, which made paintings like The Sunflowers so special. Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, Seamus Heaney, Samuel Beckett, and Mary Robinson are other examples of well-educated successful people. The former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher graduated in Chemistry and Law.

Text Understanding

4   So what does this tell us? An education is not a prerequisite for success. You can be a good poet by innate ability alone without a degree in English; you can be a creative businessperson or inventor without a degree in business or technology; you can contribute to scientific knowledge without a degree in science, and so on. However, this approach works only for the few innately creative people, with the rest of us needing help to become creative. Truly gifted people have intuitions and insights, which mirror and may substitute for a formal education in a particular discipline. Of course, providing a formal education for the truly gifted can produce people of spectacular ability such as Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking. There are also examples of people well qualified in one field or discipline who are successful in another. Pat Kenny is a successful broadcaster and a qualified engineer. Seeking any simple direct correlation between educational attainment and success, however measured, is difficult.

5    A strong drive to succeed and the ability to be in the right place at the right time may be common features of successful people.  So what’s a university education for? I believe that a university education should equip a person to be a creative contributor to society mainly in the discipline of their programme studies, but not exclusively so. This definition of the purpose of a university education should be contrasted with the current widely accepted view that a university education is for employment or for getting a job. This latter view is a rather limited one and very much undervalues the significance of a university education both for the person and for society in general. Regardless of the purpose of university education, however, it is true that the better the qualification, the higher is the probability of getting the job one wants. If you are thinking about a university education, see it as an opportunity to pursue a discipline you are interested in and through which you can be a creative contributor and initiator of creative endeavours

 

Samples for Reading Questions

A university education should equip a person to be a creative contributor to society mainly in the discipline of their programme studies, but not exclusively so. / It is an opportunity for one to pursue a discipline he is interested in and through which he can be a creative contributor and initiator of creative endeavour.

 

Summary

Some people have made a great success of life with little  formal education, while some others built a lifetime of 1) __________ based on formal training and education. This tells us that an education is not a prerequisite for success. But it’s true that the better the 2) __________ the higher the 3) ___________ of getting the job. The 4) ______ widely accepted view that a university education is for 5) __________ or for getting a job is a rather limited one and very much 6) __________ the significance of a university education. A university education is an opportunity to 7) ______ a discipline you are interested in and through which you can be a creative 8) __________ and initiator of creative endeavour.

creativity

qualifications

current

employment

undervalues

pursue

contributor

probability

 

Language Points: 

1.We have all heard stories of the self-made person who, with very little formal education, has made a great success of life.

译文:我们都听说过许多人自学成才的故事,这些人几乎没有接受过什么正规教育,但却获得了巨大的成功。

让步状语从句,完整结构为:no matter what the measure it is

2.In many cases the simple measure of success is personal wealth, but whatever the measure they are perceived as being successful in their lifetime.

译文:在许多情况下,衡量一个人成功与否的简单标准就是这个人的个人财富,但不管标准如何(用什么标准来衡量),他们都被视为是成功的。

: (Para.4) however measured=no matter how it is measured

not becausebut because 不是因为……而是因为……

3.Leonardo da Vinci, who was a great painter and technological inventor, was also a pioneer in human anatomy, not because he was interested in medical education, but because he felt that to draw the human form well he needed to know what was under the skin.

定语从句,修饰Leonardo da Vinci

Example:

    他成功了,不是因为他运气好,而是因为他努力。

    He became successful, not because he was lucky, but

    because he worked hard.

译文:莱昂那多·达·芬奇不仅是一名伟大的画家和发明家,还成为了人体解剖学领域的先驱,但这并不是因为他对医学感兴趣,而是因为他认识到要想准确地描绘人体就必须了解人体的结构。

不定式作目的状语

形容词作定语,与后面的which从句一起修饰yellow

4.In a sense one of his technological contributions was the development of his own so characteristic,  yellow , which made paintings like The Sunflowers so special.

译文:从某种意义上说,他对绘画技术的一大贡献就是他对“黄色”的发展,正是这种有特色的“黄色”使他的诸如《向日葵》这样的作品独树一帜。

make+宾语+宾语补足语

1) 我母亲病了,因此我不能去度假了。

     I won’t be able to go on holiday with my mother being ill.

2)因为有大量的工作要做,他们决定呆在家里。

     With a lot of work to do, they decided to stay at home.

5.However, this approach works only for the few innately creative people, with the rest of us needing help to become creative.

work for 适用于

这是个好的想法,但或许不适用于孩子们。

This is a good idea, but it may not work for the children.

3)把所有的因素考虑在内,他的计划看起来就好多了。

    (With) Everything taken into consideration, his plan seems to be better.

with+名词+现在分词/形容词/介词短语/过去分词/动词不定式等:独立主格结构(介词with可以省略,通常在句中起状语从句的作用)

译文:然而,这种方法仅适用于少数天生具有创造性的人,而我们其他人则需要帮助。

 

5.Of course, providing a formal education for the truly gifted can produce people of spectacular ability such as Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein and Stephen Hawking.

the + a. 表示一类人或事物

Examples:

the rich

富人

 the homeless.

无家可归者

译文:当然,向真正有天赋的人提供正规的教育能够使他们具有非凡的能力,比如说牛顿、爱因斯坦以及斯蒂芬·霍金。

介词短语作定语,修饰people

6.There are also examples of people well qualified in one field or discipline who are successful in another.

译文:当然,在某个学术领域受过良好的教育但在另外的领域却非常成功的例子也不胜枚举。

过去分词与who引导的从句修饰共同作定语修饰people

7.I believe that a university education should equip a person to be a creative contributor to society mainly in the discipline of their programme studies, but not exclusively so.

译文:我认为大学教育应该能够帮助一个人成为在其所学领域里对社会有创造性的贡献者,但也不能仅限于此。

so指代前面提到

a university education should …

8.This definition of the purpose of a university education should be contrasted with the current widely accepted view that a university education is for employment or for getting a job.

译文:对大学教育的目的的理解应该有别于目前人们普遍接受的观点,即大学教育就是为了工作或就业。

that 从句作view的同位语,起解释说明的作用

9.Regardless of the purpose of university education, however, it is true that the better the qualification, the higher is the probability of getting the job one wants.

译文:然而,不管大学教育的目的何在,一个人的素质越高,找到理想工作的可能性就越大,这是不争的事实。

问题越困难,我就越不可能回答。

The more difficult the questions are, the less likely I am to be able to answer them.

the more the more…结构表示“越……越……”

定语从句修饰discipline

定语从句与不定式短语to pursue…共同修饰opportunity

10.If you are thinking about a university education, see it as an opportunity to pursue a discipline you are interested in and through which you can be a creative contributor and initiator of creative endeavour.

译文:因此当你思考大学教育时,把它看作是从事自己感兴趣的专业的机会,以及培养创造力并以此为社会作出积极贡献的机会。

 

Reading Comprehension

1. Does everyone contribute positively to the society?

Answer: No. Everyone has the potential to contribute positively to society, but the potential of many people is never realized.

2. What is a self-made person?

Answer: A self-made person is one who, with very little formal education, has made a great success of life.

3. What does Van Gogh, Newton, Einstein, Heaney, etc. have in common according to the passage?

Answer: They all built a lifetime of creativity based on formal training and education.

4. Who can become successful without a formal education? Why?

Answer: Only the few innately creative people can become successful without an education, because the truly gifted have intuitions and insights, which mirror and may substitute for a formal education in a particular discipline.

5. What’s the relationship between educational attainment and success?

Answer: There is no simple direct correlation between educational attainment and success.

6. What’s the purpose of a university education?

Answer: A university education should equip a person to be a creative contributor to society mainly in the discipline of their programme studies, but not exclusively so.

 

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